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Building Stones in Shropshire  
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This page contains information concerning building stones in Shropshire, to help those wishing to obtain locally sourced stone for building conservation or new build, for those interested in our vernacular heritage, and those wishing to learn more about local geology at a time when it is increasingly difficult to study geology in situ.

Shropshire has a wide variety of rocks (as can be appreciated elsewhere on this web site by clicking here), symbolised by this mosaic map of the county in front of Shropshire Archives in central Shrewsbury - all the tiles and pebbles come from within Shropshire:

Details are given below concerning quarries, working and disused,
 stone masons and wallers, and examples of local
 building stones, and roofing slates
.

A brief summary of the three main areas of building stone within Shropshire can be read by clicking here. A more comprehensive overview is contained within the Building Stones Atlas published by English Heritage in conjunction with the BGS. The background to this project (the Strategic Stone Study) can be found here.

A good overview of the subject has been written by Eric Robinson: A Geologist's guide to English building stones.

Local stone provides an essential component of the landscape character, not only in such well known areas as Derbyshire and the Cotswolds but also within Shropshire. This concept is explored further in Andrew Jenkinson's article within the Proceedings (click here to see a copy). Examples of towns, villages and estates utilising their local stone are provided in the table below.

Geologists help to identify and promote England's unique stone heritage. The GeoConservation Commission (a body within the Geological Society of London) has set up an embryo English Stone Forum, whose steering group includes professional geologists, representatives of the stone industry, English Heritage, English Nature, the Scottish Stone Liaison Group (SSLG) and the Welsh Stone Forum.

For further information there are a number of
 Libraries, Resource Centres, Research, Books, Journals and Series

 that may be consulted, containing information of relevance to Shropshire and the Marches.

Please send any suggestions for additions, or amendments to entries, by email. Click here for the addresses.

Working quarries

There are a number of actively working quarries currently able to supply stone within Shropshire and neighbouring counties. It is strongly recommended that any potential quarry be visited prior to placing a substantial order for stone, to ensure compatibility with existing material and a capacity to produce material of the required dimensions and quality. There can be considerable variation within a single quarry, depending on the bed(s) that can be worked, and modern extraction processes may not be compatible with producing dimension stone or ashlar.

You may also wish to consider the use of recycled stone, recovered from demolished buildings in the vicinity. English Heritage have published a leaflet to assist determining and obtaining compatible replacement stone entitled "Identifying and Sourcing Stone for Historic Building Repair", available by clicking here.

The County also has many disused quarries which may yield potential sources of stone, subject to landowner (and possibly planning) permission. Further details can be provided on request.

Click here to see a map of the working quarries in Shropshire, and here to display a table of contact details.

Click here to see the report by Shropshire County Council on mineral resources (including quarried stone) within the County.

 

Disused quarries

There are many disused quarries, once utilised for supplying local needs. Most are in private ownership but some may be capable of being reworked to supply specific building needs, subject to owner's consent and approval by the Planning authorities. It is strongly recommended that the owner's permission be sought before visiting any potential quarry and the feasibility and quality of available stone assessed, to ensure compatibility with existing material and assurance that sufficient new material can be supplied within the timescale of the project. There can be considerable variation within a single quarry, depending on the bed(s) that can be worked.

The following list does not imply accessibility or suitability. It should be realised that any disused quarry might have been used for landfill and may have been backfilled entirely. Old quarry faces are rarely maintained and may be in a dangerous state of instability. Furthermore, quarries are often poorly drained and the floors may be very boggy; lakes may be very deep and cold. Do not trespass.

The identification of historic quarries and their inclusion on this web site must not be construed as a presumption in support of future working. Circumstances change over time and many of the best historical sources of supply are now in sensitive or statutorily protected areas (e.g. SSSI's) where it may be difficult to obtain planning permission.

A lot of these sites have become re-vegetated and may contain features of ecological value. Furthermore, many old quarry sites and particularly the smaller ones may now no longer be clearly recognisable as quarries due to erosion, vegetation, and sometimes infilling.

It should be realised that Landowners may be sensitive to old quarry sites being considered as potential sources of supply, and may not welcome enquiries for access, inspection or potential for reworking.

Some sites are of particular geological interest regionally (RIGS) and formally recorded by the County planning authority. More detail is available on LocalView, displayed in map form. If you know the name of the site, or a keyword that can be searched for, then many of Shropshire's RIGS, LIGS and SSSIs can be retrieved from this table.

You may also wish to consider the use of recycled stone, recovered from demolished buildings in the vicinity.

Click here to see a map showing the general distribution of disused quarries within Shropshire, and here to display further details and a table of selected historical quarries (most of which are of particular geological interest regionally (RIGS) and formally recorded by the County planning authority).

 

 Stone masons and wallers

The following masons and wallers have experience of dealing with local stone. However, please note that this list is provided solely for information, and the Society cannot endorse the ability of individuals or companies named here.

Organisation

Telephone

Web site

E-mail

Contact name

Address

Capps & Capps Ltd - Building contractors specialising in the repair of old buildings.
The Sawmill
Sarnsfield
Herefordshire
HR4 8RH
01544 318 877 http://www.buildingconservation.com/directory/1u158.htm

 

-
Hallmark Electra Ltd.- restoration and walling.
New House
Chelmarsh
Hallmark Electra Ltd.
Units 6-8 Guinness Park
Leigh Sinton
Worcs
WR13 5EQ
01886 830 083 www.hallmark-electra.co.uk

cherry@hallmark-electra.co.uk

Cherry Hall (MD)

Gary Gardner (mason; specialist stone services)

Heritage House Building and Restoration - building and restoration.
New House
Chelmarsh
WV16 6AU
01746 862 640 www.heritage-house.org

peter@heritage-house.org

Peter Ward
Heritage Roofing - roofing and restoration.
The Shrewd
Kings Pyon
Hereford
HR4 8PP
01432 830 586 http://www.roofing-contractor.co.uk

Info@heritage-roofing.co.uk

-
Keith Jones - stone waller.
Ludlow
SY23 3DB
07977 243 487   Keith Jones
Men of the Stones - advisory body.
Beech Croft, Weston-under-Lizard
Shifnal
TF11 8JT
01952 850 269

www.menofthestones.org.uk

johnkellett@mac.com

Michael Tebbutt
Midland Masonry - restoration and cleaning.
Sandy Acre, Bletchley
Market Drayton
TF9 3RZ
01630 638 276 - -
Tony Muhl - specialist roofing contractor and supplier of quarried stone.
High House
Llanveynoe
Herefordshire
HR2 0ND
01873 860 357 - Tony Muhl
South Shropshire Roofing - specialist roofing contractor.
The Old Farm
Bucknell
SY7 0AA
01547 530 434 - Mike Morris
Splitlath Ltd - specialist building contractor.
Pen-y-Sarn
Acton Burnell
Shrewsbury
SY5 7PA
01981 510 611

www.splitlath.co.uk

john@splitlath.co.uk

-
Treasure & Son Ltd. - renovation, repair and conservation of old and historic buildings.
Treasure & Son Ltd.
Temeside
Ludlow
SY8 1JW
01584 872 161

www.treasureandson.co.uk

mail@treasureandson.co.uk

Stephen Treasure

 

 Building stones

 The following are the local stones within Shropshire known to have been used for vernacular building purposes in the vicinity. 

Material

Rock type

click on the link to reveal an image

Examples of quarries in this material

Examples of towns, villages and estates utilising this material are shown in bold

Examples of specific buildings are shown in normal font

Outcrop

Abdon Limestone - a prominent calcrete near the top of the Old Red Sandstone succession, usually quarried for lime.

 Southeast Shropshire

limestone Abdon Burf (disused)

-

Acton Scott Limestone - a distinctive Ordovician limestone.

 Acton Scott

limestone Acton Scott (W of church) (disused)

St Margaret's Church, Acton Scott [SJ 360 139]

Alberbury Breccia - a distinctive coarse red stone utilised within the estate and village. Also known as Cardeston Breccia or Cardeston Stone or Hook-a-Gate Stone.

 quarried in Cardeston District, west of  Shrewsbury

breccia Alberbury estate (disused)

Loton Deer Park (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Loton estate, Alberbury [SJ 35 14]

St Michael's Church, Alberbury [SJ 358 145]

Holy Trinity Church, Bicton [SJ 448 148]

St Michael's Church, Cardeston [SJ 395 123]

Rowton Castle Hotel [SJ 378 127]

lowest levels of Shrewsbury Abbey [SJ 498 124]

Holy Trinity Church, Yockleton [SJ 395 101]

Wattlesborough School [SJ 357 117]

Alternata Limestone - a distinctive limestone of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series, sometimes used for stone slate due to a fissility caused by the concentration of brachiopod shells of Heterorthis alternata. Of similar age and character are the Horderley Stone to the south, the Soudley Stone to the east, and the Cheney Longville Flags.

 Church Stretton

limestone Horderley Quarries, Wistanstow (disused)

Bridge Cottage, Little Stretton [SO 443 916]

in the ground around Clun Castle [SO 298 809]

Alveley Stone - a deep red to grey medium sandstone of Upper Carboniferous (Keele Beds) age. The Alveley Sandstone is mainly bright red in colour and varies in grain size from fine to coarse sandstone, with some marl beds and some quite micaceous, well laminated sandstones. The most coherent beds of coarse sandstone were exploited in the past for grindstones.

 Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Alveley (disused)

Hextons Farm (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

buttresses of All Saints Church, Claverley [SO 793 934]

Abberley Clock Tower (for decorative emphasis on the strings and doorway) [SO 744 666]

St Johns Church, Kidderminster [SO 823 766]

St Mary Magdalene Church, Quatford (south aisle wall and porch) [SO 738 907]

village of Alveley

Aymestry Limestone - pale grey thick bedded limestone of Upper Silurian age; includes the limestones of the Bringewood Beds. Usually utilised for lime rather than a building stone. See also entry for Leintwardine Beds.

 South Shropshire

limestone Aymestrey (disused*)

Mocktree (disused)

Shelderton Rock, Clungunford (disused)

Mortimer's Cross Mill, Lucton [SO 426 637]

Stokesay Court [SO 443 786]

Bailey Hill Formation - fine grained sandstone and argillaceous siltstone.

 Bishops Castle

siltstone The Wintles, Bishops Castle (disused)

Building fascias and walls in the Wintles estate [SO 322 892]

Bayston Stone - a coarse, sometimes conglomeratic, purple sandstone of the Precambrian Longmyndian.

Bayston Hill, south of Shrewsbury

- Bayston Hill  (working)

Cluster of houses in the hamlet of Bridges, through Cothercott, Lyth Hill and Bayston Hill to Haughmond Abbey at the foot of Haughmond Hill. It also features in St Laurence?s Church, Church Stretton.

Big Flint Rock Sandstone - strong medium grained sandstone of the Upper Carboniferous. See also entry for Coal Measures Sandstone

 East Shropshire

-

-

Barrow church?s Anglo-Saxon chancel

12th century nave of  Buildwas Abbey

much of the facing stone for Wenlock Abbey

Bog Quartzite - see entry for Pentamerus Sandstone.

 -

sandstone -

-

Breidden Volcanics - fine volcanic rocks locally used for vernacular buildings.

 Breidden Hills

(see also Criggion Green)

- Breidden (disused)

-

Bridgnorth Sandstone - red to brown medium sandstone of Permian age, widely used for vernacular buildings; basal part of the New Red Sandstone.

 East Shropshire

sandstone Bridgnorth (disused)

Bridgnorth [SO 71 93]

Dudmaston Gate Lodge

St Leonard's, Bridgnorth [SO 717 934]

Bringewood Beds - see entry for Aymestry Limestone.

 South Shropshire

limestone -

-

Bromsgrove Sandstone - pink and green, red to brown medium sandstone of Triassic age. Quarried in Worcs and Warks but widely used in Shropshire for religious buildings after the coming of the railway in mid 19C.

 -

sandstone -

St Leonard's, Ludlow

Brownstones - a yellowish brown sandstone of Upper Devonian (Clee Group) age.

 South Shropshire

sandstone Burf Hill (disused)

Burwarton estate [SO 62 85]

St Laurence, Burwarton [SO 617 850]

Bunter Pebble Beds - see entry for Chester Pebble Beds.

 North Shropshire and around Bridgnorth

conglomerate Bridgnorth (disused)

St Mary's Church, Market Drayton [SJ 675 341]

Buxton Rock - a volcanic rock of the Precambrian Strettonian, of the Eastern Longmyndian. Fine-grained, greenish-grey tuff, jointed such that blocks tend naturally to assume a roughly tetrahedral shape. Joint planes are characteristically stained black.

 Church Stretton

tuff All Stretton (disused)

Carding Mill Valley, Church Stretton (disused)

St Laurence's, Church Stretton, north wall of nave [SO 452 937]

Calcareous Tufa - a white to cream, very weak rock produced by calcareous algae, which hardens on expoure to the atmosphere. Utilised for carved stones in churches.

 small outcrops around Titterstone Clee Hill

tufa -

Bitterley church [SO 570 773]

Eastham Church [SO 656 687]

Carboniferous Limestone - pale grey massive limestone of Lower Carboniferous age; mostly quarried for the smelting of iron and manufacture of lime; known as Oreton Limestone in Southeast Shropshire.

 Northwest Shropshire

limestone Lilleshall (disused)

Llanymynech Hill (disused)

Nantmawr (disused)

Porthwaen (disused)

Oswestry [SJ 27 21]

The Cross Keys Hotel, Llanymynech [SJ 266 209]

St John the Evangelist Church, Maesbrook [SJ 303 212]

Treflach Hall, Trefonen [SJ 269 257]

Cardeston Breccia - see entry for Alberbury Breccia.

 quarried in Cardeston District, west of  Shrewsbury

breccia Cardeston (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

St Michael's Church, Alberbury [SJ 358 145]

Holy Trinity Church, Bicton [SJ 448 148]

St Michael's Church, Cardeston [SJ 395 123]

Rowton Castle Hotel [SJ 378 127]

lowest levels of Shrewsbury Abbey [SJ 498 124]

Holy Trinity Church, Yockleton [SJ 395 101]

Wattlesborough School [SJ 357 117]

Cardeston Stone - see entry for Alberbury Breccia and Hook-a-Gate Stone.

 quarried in Cardeston District, west of  Shrewsbury

breccia Cardeston (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

St Michael's Church, Alberbury [SJ 358 145]

Holy Trinity Church, Bicton [SJ 448 148]

St Michael's Church, Cardeston [SJ 395 123]

Rowton Castle Hotel [SJ 378 127]

lowest levels of Shrewsbury Abbey [SJ 498 124]

Holy Trinity Church, Yockleton [SJ 395 101]

Wattlesborough School [SJ 357 117]

Cardingmill Grit - coarse sandstone from the Burway Formation of the Stretton Group of the Precambrian (Longmyndian).

 West of Church Stretton

- -

-

Cardington Stone - a distinctive weak brown-buff to greenish fine grained sandstone of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series.

 Cardington

- Cardington (disused)

Cardington

Gretton

Cefn Einion Formation - fine grained sandstone and argillaceous siltstone.

 Clun

siltstone Rock of Woolbury (disused)

Clun

Cefn y Fedw Sandstone - a pale grey to light brown coarse sandstone, sometimes weathering to darker brown with ferruginous staining; of the Middle Carboniferous.

 North Shropshire

sandstone Ruabon (disused)

Nantr Quarry, Sweeney Mountain (disused)

Tower Quarry, Sweeney Mountain (disused)

Holy Trinity Church, Meole Brace [SJ 486 105]

Oswestry School Chapel [SJ 285 293]

St John Evangelist, Pool Quay [SJ 257 118]

Llanyblodwell Bridge

Chatwall Stone - a thin bedded sandy limestone similar, if not identical, to the Cheney Longville Flags.

 Stretton Valley

sandy limestone Yell Bank, Chatwall (working)

Horderley Quarries, Wistanstow (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

St Peter's Church, Rushbury [SO 515 918]

Cheney Longville Flags - distinctive yellowish brown siltstones and fine sandstones, sometimes with micaceous partings, of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series. Of similar age and character are the Horderley Stone to the south, the Soudley Stone to the east, and the Alternata Limestone.

 Craven Arms

sandy limestone northwest of Craven Arms (disused)

roof of Stokesay Castle [SO 435 817]

roof of HSBC bank, Ludlow [SO 512 747]

Chester Pebble Beds - a red conglomerate of the Permo-Triassic, equivalent to the Kidderminster Conglomerate of the Bunter.

 North Shropshire and around Bridgnorth

conglomerate Bridgnorth (disused)

Edgmond (disused)

Goldstone, Market Drayton  (disused)

Hinstock , Market Drayton  (disused)

Waters Upton (disused)

St Mary's Church, Market Drayton [SJ 675 341]

Hinstock

Clee Hill Marble - a decorative form of fossiliferous Oreton Limestone, but sometimes confused with the much younger (Jurassic) Clee Hill Marble of the Cotswolds.

 Clee Hill

limestone Oreton (disused)

fireplaces

Coal Measures Sandstone - strong sandstone of the Upper Carboniferous. See also entry for Highley Stone

 West, East and Southeast Shropshire

- Westbury (disused)

Buildwas (disused)

Cleobury Mortimer (disused)

Telford (disused)

-

Coed yr Allt Sandstone - a buff to greenish white sandstone of the Carboniferous (Halesowen Formation). As with other Coal Measures sandstones, a variable iron content has lead to colour variations from greenish-white to dark brown.

 North Shropshire

sandstone Oswestry

Oswestry

19th century tower of Pontesbury Church

Comley Limestone - Cambrian age.

 South Central Shropshire

limestone -

-

Comley Sandstone - medium sandstone of Cambrian age.

 South Central Shropshire

sandstone Comley (disused)

-

Cornbrook Sandstone - coarse Upper Carboniferous sandstone.

 Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Cornbrook, Clee Hill (disused)

Knowbury church [SO 572 752]

Upper Woodrow Farm [SO 607 751]

Cornstone - calcrete within the Old Red Sandstone, usually quarried for lime.

 Southeast Shropshire

calcareous sandstone Whitbatch (disused)

Neenton (disused)

Clee St Margaret (disused)

Creden Hill (disused)

Judges Lodging, Ludlow Castle [SO 507 747]

Barn wall, Neenton [SO 637 877]

Coston Grit - a coarse sandstone of the basal Ordovician of Caradoc age, resting unconformably on the Precambrian; coarse sandstone but varies between a conglomerate and medium sandstone, often with ferruginous weathering; equivalent to the Hoar Edge Grit further north.

 Southwest Shropshire

- Coston Farm (disused)

Coston Manor [SO 390 801]

Coston Barns, Coston and much of the older part of Aston on Clun

Criggion Green - a green gabbro utilised mainly for roadstone but locally used for vernacular buildings.

 Breidden Hills

(see also Breidden Volcanics)

gabbro Criggion (working)

St Tysilio Church, Llandysilio [SJ 267 193]

Dhustone - a very dark grey dolerite when fresh, hydrothermally altered along cooling fractures to grey green; rusty brown when weathered; utilised mainly for roadstone but locally used for vernacular buildings.

 Titterstone Clee and Brown Clee

dolerite Clee Hill (working)

Titterstone Clee (disused)

Granite Quarry (disused)

Magpie Quarry (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Clee Hill Village [SO 59 75]

Clee Hill Goods Shed [SO 592 754]

Ditton Priors

Cleobury North

Downton Castle Sandstone - a yellow fine sandstone. Sometimes referred to as Onibury Stone.

 South Shropshire

sandstone Downton Estate (disused)

Ludford Corner (disused)

Northfield, Shobdon (disused*)

Onibury (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Downton Castle estate [SO 45 75]

St Cuthbert's Church tower, Clungunford [SO 395 787]

Corve Bridge, Lower Corve Street, Ludlow (recovered from demolition of St Leonard's Chapel) [SO 510 753]

27 Broad Street, Ludlow [SO 512 744]

Entrance archway to St Leonard's churchyard, Ludlow [SO 511 711]

Magnus-Allcroft Estate (Stokesay Court), Onibury, e.g. No.144 and walling stone [SO 444 787]

Onibury Church [SO 456 791]

Edgton Limestone - a silty limestone used locally for vernacular buildings.

 Southwest Shropshire

- -

Edgton

Farlow Sandstone - yellow coarse sandstone. Includes 'firestone', a quartzitic variety formerly employed for hearths.

 Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Farlow (disused) - possibly the source of Scythe Stone*

Hoptonbank [SO 62 77]

Cleeton St Mary Church [SO 611 786]

St Giles Church, Farlow [SO 639 806]

Farlow School

Butter Cross, Ludlow (original construction) [SO 511 746]

Felton Stone - purple red medium sandstone.

 Ludlow

sandstone Felton (disused)

Vestry and Tower of St Laurence's, Ludlow [SO 511 747]

St Mary's Church, Bromfield [SO 482 768]

Felton Farm [SO 501 767]

Government Rock - a distinctive fossiliferous sandy limestone, more properly known as Pentamerus Limestone.

 Norbury

sandy limestone Norbury (disused)

Norbury [SO 36 92]

Norbury church [SO 363 928]

Grinshill Stone - 'white' but actually pale grey to cream fine sandstone of Tertiary age, affected by hydrothermal fluids driven by the heat from a basic Tertiary dyke intrusion; quartz granulations frequently cut across the stone. Lower half of the 'white' is thick bedded (aeolian in origin); upper half is medium bedded (fluviatile)

 Clive

sandstone Bridge and Cureton (red) (disused)

Corbet Wood (both red and white) (disused)

Grinshill (white) (working)

Red Grinshill Quarry (red) (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry ("red")

Stone in Archaeology Database entry ("white")

Shrewsbury [SJ 49 12]

Attingham Park, nr Shrewsbury (white) [SJ 550 100]

Abbey Church, Shrewsbury (red) [SJ 498 125]

English Bridge, Shrewsbury (white) [SJ 496 123]

Old Market Hall, Shrewsbury (white) [SJ 491 124]

Railway station, Shrewsbury (white) [SJ 494 128]

Shrewsbury Castle (red) [SJ 490 130]

St Marys Church, Shrewsbury (white) [SJ 493 126]

20th Century repairs to the Butter Cross, Ludlow (white) [SO 511 746]

Morton Corbet Castle (red) [SJ 561231]

Viroconium (Wroxeter) (white) [SJ 565 086]

Harnage Slate - a thinly bedded sandy limestone (not slate!) from the Ordovician Hoar Edge Grit, made fissile by the presence of flattened fossil brachiopod shells, Orthis subquadrata, sufficient to provide stone roofing tiles. Of similar age is the Subquadrata Limestone, with many fossil Orthis shells.

 south central Shropshire

sandy limestone Bull Wood above Acton Burnell (disused)

Old Quarry, Pitchford (disused)

Park Wood, Acton Burnell (working)

summit of the ridge through Lodge Hill (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Stokesay Castle

Wenlock Abbot?s House

roofing of Pitchford Hall and Langley Chapel

Eyton-on-Severn [SJ 575 065]

Berrington Church [SJ 530 068]

Chatwell Hall (attic) [SO 515 975]

St Laurences Church, Church Stretton [SO 452 936]

Langley Chapel [SJ 536 002]

Madeley Court [SJ 695 051]

St Michael and All Angels Church, Pitchford (roof) [SJ 527 043]

Pitchford Hall [SJ 527 042]

Plaish Hall [SO 532 965]

Wenlock Priory [SJ 625 000]

Haughmond Stone - clastic metasediments of the Precambrian.

 east of Shrewsbury

-

Haughmond (working)

-

Helsby Sandstone Formation - see entry for Grinshill Stone.

-

-

-

-

Hereford Stone - red to brown medium sandstone, widely used for vernacular buildings. A generic term for the Old Red Sandstone employed in the city of Hereford but quarried from diverse sources from some distance around. Known quarries close to Shropshire include Cradley and Leysters Park, NE of Leominster.

 South and Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Capler (disused*)

Cradley (disused)

Leysters Park (disused)

Three Elms, Hereford (disused*)

Hereford [SO 51 40]

Highley Stone - a grey medium sandstone of Upper Carboniferous age (Halesowen Formation), often used for flagstones. The sandstone from Stanley Quarry was also used as a grindstone*.

 Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Highley (disused)

Stanley (disused*)

Upper Arley (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

36 Broad Street, Ludlow [SO 512 744]

Bridge over the River Severn, Bridgnorth [SO 718 930]

Stourport Bridge (utilised stone from  Stanley Quarry) [SO 807 710]

Hoar Edge Grit - a coarse sandstone of the basal Ordovician of Caradoc age, resting unconformably on the Precambrian; equivalent to the Coston Grit further south.

 south central Shropshire

sandstone Park Wood, Acton Burnell (active)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Chatwall Hall

Langley Chapel [SJ 536 002]

Tower of St Laurence's, Church Stretton [SO 452 937]

St James Church, Cardington [SO 506 952]

Hook-a-Gate Stone - see entry for Cardeston Stone and Alberbury Breccia.

 quarried west of  Shrewsbury

- Cardeston (disused)

Meole Brace Church

Shrewsbury School Chapel

Holy Trinity Church, Bicton [SJ 448 148]

Holdgate Stone - red to green medium to coarse sandstone.

 Corve Dale

sandstone Holdgate (disused)

Broncroft Castle (garden walls) [SO 544 867]

Holdgate Castle [SO 562 896]

Hope Shale - a thinly bedded mudstone metamorphosed to hornfels in contact with the Corndon Hill phacolith intrusion of dolerite.

 west side of Corndon Hill

hornfels Simons Castle Quarry, Corndon (disused)

-

Horderley Stone - a distinctive banded sandstone of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series. Of similar age and character are the Alternata Limestone and the Cheney Longville Flags. Equivalent to the Soudley Stone further north.

 north of Craven Arms

sandstone Glenburrell for Wistanstow (disused)

Horderley Quarries, Wistanstow (disused)

Longville Plantation, south of Horderley (disused)

Long Lane, Craven Arms (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Craven Arms [SO 43 83]

Wistanstow [SO 43 85]

Wistanstow School [SO 432 856]

Keele Beds - red (yellow-brown around Bridgnorth) medium to coarse grained and well laminated sandstones.

 Acton Burnell

sandstone Acton Burnell (disused)

The Quarry, Shrewsbury (disused)

above the banks of the Severn at Belvidere and at Preston Boats (disused)

SW of Shrewsbury on the Longden Road at Redhill (disused)

Acton Burnell Castle and estate cottages

quoins of St Laurence's, Church Stretton, north wall of nave [SO 452 937]

St Mary Magdalene Church, Bridgnorth [SO 717 928]

The preferred stone for medieval Shrewsbury; seen in the older religious buildings such as Shrewsbury Abbey and the churches of St Julians, St Mary?s and St Giles.

Kenley Grit - a coarse ferruginous sandstone with quartz pebbles from the base of the Silurian.

 Ape Dale

sandstone Kenley  (disused)

St Peter's Church, Rushbury [SO 515 918]

Harley School

Keuper Sandstone - red to brown medium sandstone, widely used for vernacular buildings. An outdated stratigraphic name for the lower beds of the New Red Sandstone.

 North, East and Southeast Shropshire

(also separate entries for:  Bridgnorth; Grinshill; Nesscliffe)

sandstone Hawkstone (disued)

Weston (disused*)

Belton (disued)

Muxton (disused)

(also separate entries for:  Bridgnorth; Grinshill; Nesscliffe)

-

Kidderminster Conglomerate - a red conglomerate of the Permo-Triassic, equivalent to the Chester Pebble Beds of the Bunter.

 North Shropshire and around Bridgnorth

conglomerate Goldstone (disused)

Edgmond (disused)

Hermitage, nr Bridgnorth (disused)

Hinstock (disused)

Waters Upton (disused)

-

Leintwardine Beds - a grey calcareous siltstone similar to the Whitcliffe Beds widely used for vernacular buildings in Ludlow, of Upper Silurian: Leintwardine age.

 Corve Dale

siltstone Delbury (working)

-

Lias - grey clay with thin limestone bands formerly utilised for brick manufacture.

 Prees

mudstone Prees (disused)

Prees

Little Wenlock Basalt - a very dark grey dolerite utilised mainly for roadstone but locally used for vernacular buildings.

 Wrekin

dolerite Doseley, in Horsehay dingle (disused)

-

Lower Mottled Sandstone - see entry for Bridgnorth Sandstone.

 -

- -

-

Millstone Grit - a coarse grey sandstone from the Upper Carboniferous

 Oswestry

sandstone Broseley (disused)

Coalbrookdale (disused)

Lilleshall (disused)

Sweeney Mountain (disused)

Aston Hall [SJ 326 272]

Sweeney Hall Hotel, Oswestry [SJ 295 266]

Myddle Stone - see entry for Nesscliffe Stone

 Myddle

sandstone -

-

Mytton Flags - dark grey weathering brown fine grained metasediments of Ordovician age baked by the Corndon intrusion. Locally used as roofing slate.

 West Shropshire

-

Corndon (disused)

settlements on the western flank of the Stiperstones from The Bog to Snailbeach

Ness Sandstone - see entry for Nesscliffe Stone

 Nesscliffe

sandstone -

-

Nesscliffe Stone - a dark reddish brown sandstone of the Permo-Triassic, less strong than Grinshill.

 Nesscliffe

sandstone Nesscliffe (disused)

Bradford Estate, Hopton, Nesscliffe (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Shrewsbury Castle [SJ 491 124]

Montford Bridge [SJ 432 153]

New Red Sandstone - red to brown medium sandstone, widely used for vernacular buildings. See also Bridgnorth Sandstone; Grinshill Stone; Nesscliffe Stone.

 North, East and Southeast Shropshire

(also separate entries for:  Bridgnorth; Grinshill; Nesscliffe)

sandstone Belton (disused*) - also produced white sandstone

Great Chutwell, nr Newport (disused*)

Hodnet (disused)

Myddle Hill (disused)

Newport (disued)

north of Telford (disused)

(also separate entries for:  Bridgnorth; Grinshill; Nesscliffe)

-

Old Red Sandstone - red to brown medium sandstone, widely used for vernacular buildings.

 South and Southeast Shropshire

sandstone Burf Hill (disused)

Overton, nr Neenton (disused*)

Whitbatch (disused)

Downton Hall estate [SO 53 80]

Dodmore Manor Farm [SO 525 763]

former church of St Lawrence, Burwarton [SO 618 849]

Parish church, Neenton [SO 638 877]

Holy Trinity Church, Sidbury [SO 683 857]

St Mary Church, Stottesdon [SO 672 828]

Onibury Stone - a yellow fine sandstone. Usually referred to as Downton Castle Sandstone.

 South Shropshire

sandstone Downton Estate (disused)

Ludford Corner (disused)

Onibury (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Downton Castle estate [SO 45 75]

St Cuthbert's Church, Clungunford (tower) [SO 395 787]

Corve Bridge, Lower Corve Street, Ludlow (recovered from demolition of St Leonard's Chapel) [SO 510 753]

27 Broad Street, Ludlow [SO 512 744]

Entrance archway to St Leonard's churchyard, Ludlow [SO 511 711]

Magnus-Allcroft Estate (Stokesay Court), Onibury, e.g. No.144 and walling stone [SO 444 787]

Onibury Church [SO 456 791]

Ordovician Volcanics - fine grained volcanic rocks and associated sediments of the Shelve Inlier.

 West Shropshire

-

Shelve (disused)

-

Oreton Limestone - pale grey massive limestone of Lower Carboniferous age.

 Southeast Shropshire

limestone Knowle Wood (disused)

Oreton (disused*)

Studley (disused)

Oreton [SO 65 80]

Downton Hall [SO 528 792]

St Peters Church, Ludlow [SO 516 754]

Cottage opposite Farlow School

Oreton Marble - a decorative form of fossiliferous Oreton Limestone, but sometimes confused with the much younger (Jurassic) Clee Hill Marble of the Cotswolds.

 Clee Hill

limestone Oreton (disused)

fireplaces

Pentamerus Limestone - see entry for Pentamerus Sandstone.

 -

- -

-

Pentamerus Sandstone - see also entry for Kenley Grit. A distinctive rock with a grey-brown sandy matrix and contains highly fossiliferous, Pentamerus brachiopods. When broken, the shell reveals a broad-arrow mark like profile on the surface, reminiscent of the old War Department logo, hence its local name of Government Rock

 Norbury

sandy limestone Norbury (disused)

Norbury church [SO 363 928]

Wentnor, More

Rushbury church

Psammosteus Limestone - a distinctive calcrete within the Old Red Sandstone, occurring at the contact between the Dittonian and Downtonian, usually quarried for lime.

 Southeast Shropshire

limestone Bitterley (disused)

-

Purple Sandstone - purple sandstone from the Bridges Group of the Wentnor Series of the Precambrian (Longmyndian).

 West of Church Stretton

- -

-

Ragleth Tuff - a volcanic rhyolite of the Precambrian.

 east of Church Stretton

rhyolite tuff Ragleth Hill, Church Stretton (disused)

St Laurence's, Church Stretton, north wall of nave [SO 452 937]

walling in Church Stretton and Little Stretton

Red Hill Stone - a deep toned red sandstone of the Upper Carboniferous.

 Hanwood

sandstone Red Hill Quarry (disused)

All Saints, North Street, Castlefields, Shrewsbury [SJ 499 132]

Holy Trinity Church, Meole Brace [SJ 486 105]

Ruyton Stone - a red sandstone of the Permo-Triassic, less strong than Grinshill.

 Ruyton-XI-Towns

sandstone Ruyton (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

St Mary's Church, Shrewsbury [SJ 491 122]

Shrewsbury Abbey [SJ 498 124]

Wroxeter church [SJ 563 082]

Scythe Stone - strong, quartz-rich sandstone. Employed for stone sharpening under the trade name Waterloo Scythe Stone*. Probably Farlow Sandstone.

 Southeast Shropshire

sandstone nr Clee Hill, probably Farlow (disused*)

-

Shelvock Stone - a white and red mottled sandstone of the Permo-Triassic.

 between West Felton and Ruyton-XI-Towns

sandstone Shelvock (disused and now backfilled)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

Holy Trinity Church, Meole Brace [SJ 486 105]

Oswestry School chapel [SJ 283 292]

St Andrew's Church, Welsh Frankton [SJ 364 331]

Woodhouse, nr Haughton [SJ 364 288]

Slag - an anthropogenic product from iron smelting.

 Ironbridge

slag iron furnaces within Ironbridge Gorge (disused)

Ironbridge [SJ 68 03]

Slate - a generic name for thin bedded, flaggy, stone. Usually implies strengthening by metamorphism.

 Bettws-y-crwyn

slate Bettws-y-crwyn (disused)

-

Soudley Stone - a distinctive brown and greenish grey banded fine sandstone of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series. Of similar age and character are the Alternata Limestone, the Cheney Longville Flags and the Chatwall Sandstone. Equivalent to the Horderley Stone further south.

 east of Church Stretton

sandstone Soudley Quarry (disused)

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

St Andrew's Church, Hope Bowdler [SO 476 923]

St Laurence's, Church Stretton, west wall of north transept [SO 452 936]

Stone House, Soudley [SO 477 917]

hamlets and small villages to the east on the edge of Ape Dale, including Wall-under-Heywood, Ticklerton, Soudley itself and just north at Hope Bowdler

former station building, Church Stretton

Spy Wood Grit - a coarse grey calcareous sandstone of the Upper Ordovician found near Craven Arms.

 south central Shropshire

sandstone - -
Spywood Sandstone - see entry for Spy Wood Grit.

 south central Shropshire

sandstone - -
Squilver Green - a green gabbroic dolerite utilised mainly for roadstone but locally used for vernacular buildings.

 Squilver (Disgwylfa) Hill

gabbro More Quarry (disused)

used for rockery at 12 Union Street, Bishop's Castle [SO 322 887]

Stanbatch Conglomerate - a coarse sedimentary rock of the Precambrian Western Longmyndian.

west of Church Stretton

conglomerate Bayston Hill  (working)

Haughmond  (working)

Picklescot  (disused)

St Laurence's, Church Stretton, north wall of nave [SO 452 937]

Stapeley Rock - grey Ordovician volcanics, mostly tuff.

 West Shropshire

tuff -

-

Stiperstones Quartzite - a distinctive pebbly coarse grey to white sandstone with an extremely strong cement.

 Shelve

sandstone Nills Hill (disused)

St Margaret's Church, Ratlinghope [SO 402 969]

The Bog Centre (formerly the school), Stiperstones

Stretton Shale - a black-stained mudstone of the Precambrian Longmyndian.

 Church Stretton

mudstone Carding Mill Valley, Church Stretton (disused)

St Laurence's, Church Stretton, north wall of nave [SO 452 937]

Subquadrata Limestone - a thinly bedded sandy limestone from the Ordovician Hoar Edge Grit, with many fossil Orthis shells. Of similar age is the Harnage Slate.

 south central Shropshire

sandy limestone -

-

Sweeney Mountain Stone - see Cefn-y-Fedw Sandstone (above).

 

 

 

Oswestry [SJ 29 29]

Tufa - a white to cream, very weak rock produced by algae, which hardens on expoure to the atmosphere. Utilised for carved stones in churches.

 small outcrops around the Severn and Teme valleys

tufa -

St Michael's Church, Chetwynd Park [SJ 735 213]

St Mary Magdalene Church, Quatford [SO 739 907]

Upper Ludlow Shales - see entry for Whitcliffe Beds

 Ludlow

siltstone  

Ludlow

Munslow

Upper Mottled Sandstone - see entry for Wilmslow Sandstone.

 -

-

-

Wenlock Limestone - pale grey thick bedded limestone of Middle Silurian age, mostly quarried for the smelting of iron and manufacture of lime.

 Central South Shropshire

limestone Blaisdon Edge (disused)

Broadstone (working) [SO 543 899]

Coates Quarry, Much Wenlock (working)

Easthope, Lime Kiln Rough (disused) [SO 568 963]

Farlow Quarry, Much Wenlock (disused)

Lea Quarry, Much Wenlock (working)

Lilleshall, Bourton (disused) [SO 579 971]

Lincoln Hill (disused)

Ironbridge (disused)

May Hill (disused)

Presthope (disused) [SO 582 974]

Sedgley (disused)

Stretton Westwood (disused) [SO 596 984]

Wilmore (disused) [SO 614 998]

Much Wenlock [SJ 62 00]

Brook House Farm, Much Wenlock [SJ 622 000]

Buttresses for railway overbridges within Much Wenlock were sourced from Wilmore Quarry, for example the bridge across the Shrewsbury Road [SO 617 998]

Parish Church, Much Wenlock [SJ 624 000]

Wenlock Marble - a decorative form of Wenlock Limestone.

 Central South Shropshire

limestone ? possibly Farlow Quarry, Much Wenlock (disused)

figure panels on the lavabo of Wenlock Priory [SJ 625 000] - note that the originals have been removed for conservation; the lavabo on site is a resin replica

Whitcliffe Beds - a grey calcareous siltstone widely used before Georgian times in Ludlow, of Upper Silurian: Whitcliffe age.

 Ludlow

siltstone

Dinham Quarry (disused)

Charlton Quarry (disused)

Whitcliffe Main Quarry (disused)

Ludlow [SO 51 74]

North wall of Ludlow Castle [SO 507 747]

Whittery Rock - a tuff of the Ordovician

 Shelve

tuff East of Chirbury (disused)

Whittery Bridge, Chirbury [SO 271 983]

Whittery Volcanics - see entry for Whittery Rock

 -

-

-

Wildmoor Sandstone - see entry for Wilmslow Sandstone.

 quarried around Harmer Hill, Webscott, Myddle, and Nesscliffe.

sandstone -

-

Wilmslow Sandstone - a weak bright red to dull red-brown cross-bedded sandstone of the Permo-Triassic, equivalent to the Wildmoor Sandstone. Not always easy to distinguish, in buildings, from the overlying red sandstones of Grinshill and Ryton which are now referred to as the Helsby Sandstone Formation

 quarried around Harmer Hill, Webscott, Myddle, and Nesscliffe.

sandstone lower parts of Grinshill (working)

Harmer Hill (disused)

Nesscliffe (disused)

Red stone quarried at Myddle (working)

villages of Harmer Hill, Myddle and Nesscliffe

Wrekin Quartzite - a coarse grey to white Cambrian sandstone with an extremely strong cement.

 Wrekin

sandstone Ercall (disused)

Wrekin (disused)

isolated outcrop of Wrekin Quartzite near Stone Acton, east of Cardington, has been exploited for field walls and farm buildings.

 * listed in Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom (Part II for 1858) published in 1860 by the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and so likely to have been working in 1858.

 

Roofing slates

The following stones have been used as roofing slates within Shropshire, prior to the widespread use of clay tiles (which were common from the 18th century) and metamorphic slates (imported from North Wales during the 19th Century).

Harnage Stone Slate has probably been the most widely used for this purpose.

Click here to see a map showing the distribution of buildings with stone slate roofs recorded during the 2006 survey by the Shropshire Geological Society on behalf of English Heritage.

Material

Rock type

click on the link to reveal an image

Quarries

Examples

Outcrop

Alternata Limestone - a distinctive limestone of the Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series, sometimes used for stone slate. Of similar age and character are the Horderley (Soudley) Stones, the Alternata Limestone, and the Cheney Longville Flags.

 Church Stretton

limestone Horderley Quarries, Wistanstow (disused)

Bridge Cottage, Little Stretton [SO 443 916]

Chatwall Flags - yellowish brown medium grained sandstones with pronounced bedding planes, if not identical, to the Cheney Longville Flags.

 Stretton Valley

sandy limestone

Stone in Archaeology Database entry

-

Greywacke - thinly laminated greywackes from the Cefn Einion Formation, made fissile by the presence of mica-rich laminations.

 Southwest Shropshire

greywacke Clun Forest (disused)

Stokesay Church porch [SO 435 817]

Harnage Stone Slate - a thinly bedded sandy limestone (not slate!) from the Ordovician Hoar Edge Grit, made fissile by the presence of flattened fossil shells. Of similar age is the Subquadrata Limestone, with many fossil Orthis shells.

 south central Shropshire

sandstone Park Wood, Acton Burnell (working)

Pitchford Church [SJ 527 043]

Pitchford Hall [SJ 527 042]

Wenlock Priory [SJ 625 000]

Hope Shale Stone Slate - a thinly bedded mudstone metamorphosed to hornfels ("spotted slate") in contact with the Corndon Hill phacolith intrusion of dolerite.

 west side of Corndon Hill

hornfels Simons Castle Quarry, Corndon (disused*)

-

Sandstone - thin bedded sandstone from the Clun Forest Formation, made fissile by the presence of mica along bedding.

 Southwest Shropshire

sandstone Five Turnings, New Invention (disused)

Clun (various) [SO 300 808]

Tilestone - thinly bedded sandstone horizons within the Raglan Mudstone Formation of the uppermost Silurian.

 Ludlow

sandstone worked in the river bed by the Casemill, Temeside, Ludlow (disused)

Michaelchurch Escley Quarry, Herefordshire (working)

Ashford Carbonell Church [SO 525 710]

Dovecote at Court House, Richards Castle [SO 491 698]

Single tile found in excavation at Castle Hill Garage, Corve Street, Ludlow [SO 512 750]

Cap to medieval wall of the Reader's House, Ludlow [SO 512 747]

Pembridge Market Hall [SO 389 580]